Advanced Echocardiographic Techniques for Dogs & Cats

Advanced echocardiographic techniques lead to improvements in cardiac assessment of veterinary patients. Elements of a standard echocardiogram have historically included:  1) 2 dimensional and M-mode imaging (Fig 1A) of standard views of the heart, primarily for determining size and motion of cardiac structures; 2) color flow Doppler analysis (Fig 1B) for evaluating blood flow patterns; 3) traditional spectral Doppler analysis (Fig 1C), which measures blood flow velocity, and 4) contemporaneous ECG monitoring to accurately characterize…

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Interventional Cardiology in Dogs and Cats

  Interventional cardiology is an advanced field of cardiology that uses sophisticated procedures and imaging techniques to provide minimally invasive therapy for a variety of cardiovascular problems.  The heart is connected to the blood vessels/vasculature of the body, pumping blood through these vessels.  When needed, these vessels allow for direct access to the heart and vasculature.  Larger vessels in the legs or neck are chosen as entry points for interventional cardiology procedures, with access aided…

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Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common form of heart disease in cats that results in thickening of the heart muscle, specifically the main pumping chamber of the heart (left ventricle). This thickening (called hypertrophy) can impair the relaxation of the heart and cause secondary enlargement of the top chamber on the left side of the heart (left atrium). This can lead to congestive heart failure, clot formation and even sudden death in severely affected…

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