IDEXX Diagnostic Challenge: Golden Retriever with Enlarged Lymph Nodes

A 9-year-old male golden retriever presented for evaluation of persistent and slowly progressive submandibular and prescapular lymphadenopathy. Peripheral blood was submitted to IDEXX for a CBC. Fine needle aspirate samples for cytology were collected from both prescapular lymph nodes and the right mandibular lymph node. An aspirate sample from the left prescapular lymph node was also placed in a lymph node aspirate transport tube for flow cytometry. Please review the test results below to come…

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs and Cats

What is DKA in Dogs and Cats? Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious and life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that can occur in dogs and cats. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketonemia, +/- ketonuria, and metabolic acidosis.  Ketone bodies are formed by lipolysis (breakdown of fat) of fat and beta-oxidation when the metabolic demands of the cells are not met by the limited intracellular glucose concentrations.  This provides alternative energy sources for cells, which are…

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Diagnosing and Treating Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome in Dogs and Cats

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon form of a diabetic crisis that can occur in dogs and cats that has the following characteristics: Severe hyperglycemia (>600 mg/dl) Minimal to absent ketones Increased serum osmolarity (> 350 mosm/kg – normal ~ 300) Like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), HHS is caused by a lack of insulin with increased counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone).  Unlike DKA though it is believed that there is not lipolysis so…

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