Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) in Dogs

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common canine tumor of the bladder and urethra.  At this time, the cause of transitional cell carcinoma is not known.  Exposure to carcinogenic compounds is suspected to be a contributing factor, but very few specific agents have been identified. TCC is seen more commonly in female dogs than males.  Certain breeds, including Scottish terriers, West Highland White terriers, Airedales, Collies, Shelties, and Beagles, appear to be predisposed. Clinical…

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Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Dogs and Cats

Endoscopy is a minimally invasive way to evaluate the inside of organs such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, urinary system, trachea, lungs, and nasal cavity. Additionally, endoscopy can be performed to evaluate the inside of body cavities including the abdomen (laparoscopy) or chest (thoracoscopy). During endoscopy, an endoscope is inserted directly into an organ through a natural opening in the body or into a body cavity through one or more small incisions.  An endoscope is…

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Extracapsular Lateral Suture Stabilization (ELSS) for Torn Cranial Cruciate Ligaments (CrCL) in Dogs

Extracapsular Lateral Suture Stabilization (ELSS) is a surgical procedure that provides stability to the unstable canine knee.  The instability is the result of a torn cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). Knee stability is necessary for proper leg function and comfort. The Cranial Cruciate Ligament and Important Points Regarding Its Injury The CrCL, sometimes called the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), is the most important joint stabilizer in the knee. It connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin…

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