Interventional Radiology – A New Approach to Old Problems

Interventional Radiology (IR) has become the go-to therapeutic modality in recent years for a large array of clinical problems that historically required more invasive and debilitating surgical procedures. Successful IR requires the close cooperation of multiple specialty fields. Detailed diagnostic information is often necessary to allow the primary consulting specialist to know which IR team members will need to be engaged in the treatment of a given patient and condition. We have recently restructured our…

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Using Torsemide for Dogs & Cats with Congestive Heart Failure

Torsemide, a novel and more potent diuretic than furosemide, may improve management of advanced congestive heart failure in dogs and cats. Torsemide is a novel diuretic that promotes renal excretion of sodium, chloride, and water by targeting the thick ascending loop of Henle, similar to furosemide.  It also confers an anti-aldosterone effect, similar to spironolactone (potassium-sparing diuretic), which may reduce diuretic resistance and myocardial fibrosis.  Compared to furosemide, torsemide demonstrates 10 times greater diuretic potency…

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Subtle Indications of Pre-clinical Heart Disease in Cats

Veterinary Cardiology Tip Cats give little indication of their heart disease – be suspicious of any potential cardiac abnormality, no matter how small, to catch pre-clinical heart disease. Cats do not adhere to basics that are useful when evaluating the canine heart.  From the physical exam to screening tests, such as chest radiographs and the electrocardiogram, cats can thwart our best attempts to diagnose heart disease prior to signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) or…

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How to Distinguish Between Congestive Heart Failure and Primary Respiratory Disease in Coughing Dogs

Cardiology Tip Nuances of history and physical exam findings can help distinguish between congestive heart failure and primary respiratory disease in coughing dogs. In practice, we often evaluate coughing dogs that are also found to have heart murmurs. This can be perplexing, as the character of a cough is often quite similar between the two most concerning possibilities:  congestive heart failure (CHF) and primary respiratory disease.  Coughing from both of these problems can be harsh,…

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Advanced Echocardiographic Techniques for Dogs & Cats

Advanced echocardiographic techniques lead to improvements in cardiac assessment of veterinary patients. Elements of a standard echocardiogram have historically included:  1) 2 dimensional and M-mode imaging (Fig 1A) of standard views of the heart, primarily for determining size and motion of cardiac structures; 2) color flow Doppler analysis (Fig 1B) for evaluating blood flow patterns; 3) traditional spectral Doppler analysis (Fig 1C), which measures blood flow velocity, and 4) contemporaneous ECG monitoring to accurately characterize…

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