Cholecalciferol Poisoning in Dogs and Cats

Ingestion of rodenticides by companion animals is consistently one of the most common intoxications in veterinary medicine. Historically, second-generation anticoagulants were the most common active ingredient in rodenticides. Though there was the potential for life-threatening hemorrhage within 72 hours of ingestion, an inexpensive antidote (vitamin K1) was available and effective if administered prior to clinical signs. In 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enacted regulations banning the use of second-generation anticoagulants in residential rodenticides. This…

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Skunk Trivia Challenge

Skunks are well known for their unique defense mechanism of spraying an oily, thick, and stinky secretion from the anal glands when they feel threatened. How much do you know about skunks? Take our Skunk Trivia Challenge. Skunk Trivia Question 1.  True or False: Skunks can spray up to eight feet away.    Answer: FALSE Skunks can spray 15 to 16 feet away, with precision up to 10 feet…

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Outpatient Protocol for Dogs with Parvoviral Enteritis

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a serious and potentially fatal viral illness that remains common in dogs, despite the availability and efficacy of vaccinations. Without treatment, parvoviral enteritis has a mortality rate in excess of 90%. Hospitalization and aggressive care can decrease mortality to 10-30%; however, this approach is often cost prohibitive. In this article, we will review an outpatient protocol for dogs with parvoviral enteritis. There has been recent investigation into the efficacy and safety…

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Common Toxins That Cause Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs and Cats

At MedVet, we treat dogs and cats for ingestion of kidney toxins on at least a weekly, sometimes even daily, basis. In this article we will review common toxins causing acute kidney injury in dogs and cats, how we prevent and treat the renal effects, and how we monitor for acute kidney injury. NSAID Toxicity in Dogs and Cats Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce inflammation and pain via the inhibition of COX enzymes, preventing the conversion…

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Understanding Blood Lactate Levels in Dogs with Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (GDV)

Measuring blood lactate levels in dogs with Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (GDV) can guide you on your resuscitation efforts and help you better understand the prognosis as you communicate with dog owners. Below are tips on measuring blood lactates that may help you in your practice. What is a Blood Lactate Actually Measuring? Lactic acid is a weak acid and dissociates into lactate (-) and H+. Normally glucose is converted into pyruvate via glycolysis in the…

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