Heat Stroke in Dogs: A State of Multi-organ Dysfunction

Heat stroke in dogs is a common disorder with life-threatening consequences. This article will review the causes of hyperthermia and the negative impact of high temperatures on organ function. Causes of Hyperthermia in Dogs Hyperthermia is an abnormally high body temperature, and in dogs, it is typically observed between 104.9F – 109.4F. There are two forms of hyperthermia: pyrogenic and non-pyrogenic. With pyrogenic hyperthermia, the body is presented with pyrogens (ex – substances produced from…

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Management of Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disorder (FLUTD)

Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disorder (FLUTD) describes a clinical syndrome which manifests as pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria. Cats also frequently develop a habit of inappropriate elimination, which can hamper the human-animal bond and may result in relinquishment or euthanasia, making understanding of how to treat this a disorder of crucial importance. It is estimated that 5% of cats develop FLUTD, with equal representation between males and females. However, due to anatomical differences, there is a…

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Intoxication Management with Intravenous Lipid Emulsion (ILE) Therapy for Dogs and Cats

Intoxication Management with Intravenous Lipid Emulsion (ILE) Therapy for Dogs and Cats Dealing with intoxicated veterinary patients can be difficult. There are few toxins for which there is an antidote. Often, the options available to the clinician are limited to supportive care while waiting for the toxic signs to abate. The recent development of another option in treating certain severe toxicities, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is garnering attention. Proposed in the late 1990s, intravenous…

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Super Toxic Levels of Xylitol Can Be Found in Chewing Gum

There are new chewing gums on the market, such as Spry® Natural Peppermint Gum, that contain extremely high levels of xylitol, a sugar substitute that is toxic to dogs. Spry® is estimated to contain 1 gram of xylitol per piece which is over three times as high a concentration as other xylitol containing gums such as some types of Trident®. The concentration of xylitol can change and varies greatly between products and companies…

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Cholecalciferol Poisoning in Dogs and Cats

Ingestion of rodenticides by companion animals is consistently one of the most common intoxications in veterinary medicine. Historically, second-generation anticoagulants were the most common active ingredient in rodenticides. Though there was the potential for life-threatening hemorrhage within 72 hours of ingestion, an inexpensive antidote (vitamin K1) was available and effective if administered prior to clinical signs. In 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enacted regulations banning the use of second-generation anticoagulants in residential rodenticides. This…

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