Warming the Hypothermic Canine and Feline Patient

Warming the Hypothermic Canine and Feline Patient Hypothermia commonly occurs in critically ill or injured canine and feline patients as a result of excessive heat loss, decreased metabolism and/or loss of the ability to thermoregulate at the level of the autonomic nervous system. Passive external rewarming by covering the patient with a blanket or towel may be sufficient in warming mildly hypothermic patients. This method minimizes heat loss to the surrounding environment and relies on…

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Cooling Methods for Canine Heat Stroke

As the weather gets warmer and our dogs have yet to acclimatize to the change in temperature, more cases of canine heat stroke are seen. The primary goal in the treatment of heat stroke is to actively facilitate cooling. Methods of cooling in the heat stroke patient focus on evaporative and conductive mechanisms of heat dissipation. Evaporative cooling is the most commonly used method, and typically involves soaking the patient with cool or tepid water…

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Hops Toxicity in Dogs

With the rising popularity of home brewing, hops ingestion and toxicity in dogs is becoming more common in the ER. Ingestion of hops in dogs causes malignant hyperthermia, however the mechanism of action is unknown. The toxic component of the plant is also unknown, but essential oils, resins, phenolic compounds or nitrogenous constituents have been considered. Toxicity can occur from both raw and spent hops. Symptoms of Hops Toxicity in Dogs Body temperature often exceeds 105°F…

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Tips for Diagnosing Septic Peritonitis in Dogs & Cats

Septic peritonitis is a challenging problem to diagnose and treat in dogs and cats. Early diagnosis may improve survival as it will lead to quicker surgical resolution and elimination of the septic foci. Part of the challenge is that is that the physical examination only positively predicts those that require surgery 50% of the time (Walters, 2003).  Dr. Natashia Evans and Dr. Jayme Hoffberg gives the following tips to help diagnose septic peritonitis: Tips for Diagnosing…

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Antimicrobial Coverage for Severe Soft Tissue Infections in Dogs

Careful consideration should be made as to the antibiotic used in dogs with severe soft tissue infections with subcutaneous cellulitis, pyrexia, +/- signs of severe sepsis or septic shock.  Some dogs have a history of injury but others may not. Approximately 60% of these dogs have strep or staph as the causative agent.  Strep in particular is good at causing septic shock.  Fluroquinolones are contraindicated in severe soft tissue/necrotizing infections because they have limited activity against…

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