Cholecalciferol Poisoning in Dogs and Cats

Ingestion of rodenticides by companion animals is consistently one of the most common intoxications in veterinary medicine. Historically, second-generation anticoagulants were the most common active ingredient in rodenticides. Though there was the potential for life-threatening hemorrhage within 72 hours of ingestion, an inexpensive antidote (vitamin K1) was available and effective if administered prior to clinical signs. In 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enacted regulations banning the use of second-generation anticoagulants in residential rodenticides. This…

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Cannabis (Marijuana) Toxicity in Dogs and Cats

Cannabis toxicity in dogs and cats is becoming increasingly common. Cannabis has become legalized for both medicinal and recreational use in many states, leading to increased access and development of more potent forms. As access increases and public opinion of cannabis is changing, toxicity is both occurring more frequently and being reported more readily. An understanding of the available formulations and pharmacology of cannabis can be advantageous in the approach to the intoxicated patient. Marijuana…

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Hops Toxicity in Dogs

With the rising popularity of home brewing, hops ingestion and toxicity in dogs is becoming more common in the ER. Ingestion of hops in dogs causes malignant hyperthermia, however the mechanism of action is unknown. The toxic component of the plant is also unknown, but essential oils, resins, phenolic compounds or nitrogenous constituents have been considered. Toxicity can occur from both raw and spent hops. Symptoms of Hops Toxicity in Dogs Body temperature often exceeds 105°F…

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Important: Other Sources of Xylitol to Dogs

Xylitol is a sugar-free sweetener used in chewing gum, baked goods, and many other products created for human consumption. It is commonly used by people with Diabetes Mellitus due to its low glycemic index and low calorie content. Xylitol can be highly toxic to dogs, causing low blood sugar and liver failure.   The hypoglycemia is caused by insulin release stimulated by xylitol.  This effect generally lasts 12-24 hours but can be delayed.  The liver failure…

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Bromethalin Toxicity in Dogs and Cats

Rodenticides were once all anti-coagulant based. With the increased incidence of criminal use, and safety concerns for children and wildlife, most governments have been phasing out anti-coagulant formulas and turning to bromethalin-based poisons that cause intractable seizures. “We had anecdotes for anti-coagulants,” says Evans. “But regrettably they don’t exist for bromethalin, necessitating a multi-step deconamination protocol including inducing vomiting, promoting toxin absorption with activated char- coal, and very strict watch with supportive care.” She adds…

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